Diabetes is a disease where the body cannot produce insulin or cannot be used effectively as per requirement. The hormone called insulin is responsible for helping the cells take in sugar to use for energy. When this gets disturbed, the levels of sugar in the blood can become too high. Prolonged high sugar levels in the blood can cause severe problems like heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, eye problems, nerve damage, foot problems etc.
Type 1 diabetes: In this type of diabetes, the body cannot produce insulin. The immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it may appear at any age. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to survive
Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes.In case of type 2 diabetes, the body produces less insulin or the body is not able to use insulin well. Type 2 diabetes can develop at any age; however, it is known to occur most often in middle-aged and older people.
Gestational diabetes: Gestational diabetes develops in fewer women when they become pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes disappears after the baby is born. However, a previous history of gestational diabetes increases the chance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
1) Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity
3) Genes and family history
5) Hormonal disorders
6) Damage to or removal of pancreas
3) psychiatric drugs
4) drugs to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
5) pentamidine, a drug used to treat a type of pneumonia
6)glucocorticoids medicines used to treat inflammatory illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, lupus, and ulcerative colitis
7) anti-rejection medicines, used to help stop the body from rejecting a transplanted organ
Symptoms of diabetes include
1) increased thirst and urination
5)numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
6)sores that do not heal
7) unexplained weight loss
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) testmeasures the blood glucose level at a single point of time. For the most reliable results, it is best to have this test in the morning, after fasting for at least 8 hours. Fasting means having nothing to eat or drink except sips of water.
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) testprovides average levels of blood glucose over the past 3 months.The higher the percentage, the higher the patient average blood glucose levels.
Random plasma glucose (RPG) test is used to diagnose diabetes when diabetes symptoms are present and the physician do not want to wait for getting fasting test done. There is no need to fast overnight for the RPG test, as this test can be done at any time.
|Diagnosis||A1C (percent)||Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)a||Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)ab||Random plasma glucose test (RPG)a|
|Normal||below 5.7||99 or below||139 or below|
|Prediabetes||5.7 to 6.4||100 to 125||140 to 199|
|Diabetes||6.5 or above||126 or above||200 or above||200 or above|
1) Manage your diabetes A (A1c test) B (blood pressure) C (cholesterol) S (stop smoking).
2) Follow your diabetes meal plan
3) Make physical activity part of your routine
4) Take your medicine
5) Check your blood glucose levels.
6) Work with your health care team.
7) Cope with your diabetes in healthy ways
Types of Insulin and How They Work
|Insulin type||How fast it starts to work (onset)||When it peaks||How long it lasts (duration)|
|Rapid-acting||About 15 minutes after injection||1 hour||2 to 4 hours|
|Short-acting,also called regular||Within 30 min after injection||2 to 3 hours||3 to 6 hours|
|Intermediate-acting||2 to 4 hours after injection||4 to 12 hours||12 to 18 hours|
|Long-acting||Several hours after injection||Does not peak||24 hours; some last longer|
Though all the above information is true do not get overwhelmed-esp type 2 diabetes. It can be easily brought under control by simple things and activities provided started early and continued. The more you eat sugar the more you will feel like. Same with carbs. Try eating more proteins. Millets are wonderful food for diabetics. Go for walks as they are the best form of exercise for diabetics. Only it has to be done continuously-always. Just keep doing it. Have a good breakfast- one which has protein for sure!